Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

RARE, EARLY AND ORIGINAL MAP BY ABRAHAM ORTELIUS. About 16 3/4″ x 21″. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570. Titled Artois / ATREBATUM REGIONIS / VERA DESCRIPTIO. / Johanne Surhonio Montensi / Auc Fore. “(Cartouche incorrectly reads “Johanne Surhonio, ” corrected to “Jacques in later editions). Shows the regions of Cambresis, Vimeux, Ponthieu, Boullenois, etc. Strapwork cartouches upper right and lower right with a scale on the lower one. 527 1598 was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer. Conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Theatre of the World. Ortelius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography. And one of the most notable figures of the school in its golden age (approximately 1570s1670s). The publication of his atlas. In 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting. To their present positions. Not framed or matted. Hand applied pigments slightly faded in places. Slightly toned with negligible foxing. Cartouche and other colors vibrant. Minor roughage around the edges, nothing penetrating into the map (all visible in the images). A FINE AND VERY RARE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MAP. The item “Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France” is in sale since Friday, February 1, 2019. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “allenpeach” and is located in Tenants Harbor, Maine. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Topic: Antiques
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Type: Physical Map
  • Year: 1579
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
  • Country/Region: Artois
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

RARE, EARLY AND ORIGINAL MAP BY ABRAHAM ORTELIUS. About 16 1/2″ x 21″. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1579. Titled PICARDIAE / Belgic regio / nis descriptio. “(Cartouche incorrectly reads “Joanne Surhonio, corrected in later editions). Shows the regions of Picardy, Santerre, Vermandois, etc. Dated lower left 1579. 527 1598 was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer. Conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Theatre of the World. Ortelius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography. And one of the most notable figures of the school in its golden age (approximately 1570s1670s). The publication of his atlas. In 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting. To their present positions. Not framed or matted. Hand applied pigments slightly faded in places. Slightly toned with negligible foxing. Cartouche and other colors vibrant. Minor roughage around the edges, nothing penetrating into the map (all visible in the images). A FINE AND VERY RARE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MAP. The item “Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France” is in sale since Monday, February 4, 2019. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “allenpeach” and is located in Tenants Harbor, Maine. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Topic: Antiques
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Type: Physical Map
  • Year: 1579
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
  • Country/Region: France
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

RARE, EARLY AND ORIGINAL MAP BY ABRAHAM ORTELIUS. About 16 3/4″ x 21″. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570. Titled Artois / ATREBATUM REGIONIS / VERA DESCRIPTIO. / Johanne Surhonio Montensi / Auc Fore. “(Cartouche incorrectly reads “Johanne Surhonio, ” corrected to “Jacques in later editions). Shows the regions of Cambresis, Vimeux, Ponthieu, Boullenois, etc. Strapwork cartouches upper right and lower right with a scale on the lower one. 527 1598 was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer. Conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Theatre of the World. Ortelius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography. And one of the most notable figures of the school in its golden age (approximately 1570s1670s). The publication of his atlas. In 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting. To their present positions. Not framed or matted. Hand applied pigments slightly faded in places. Slightly toned with negligible foxing. Cartouche and other colors vibrant. Minor roughage around the edges, nothing penetrating into the map (all visible in the images). A FINE AND VERY RARE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MAP. The item “Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France” is in sale since Wednesday, January 2, 2019. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “allenpeach” and is located in Tenants Harbor, Maine. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Topic: Antiques
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Type: Physical Map
  • Year: 1579
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
  • Country/Region: Artois
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France

RARE, EARLY AND ORIGINAL MAP BY ABRAHAM ORTELIUS. About 16 3/4″ x 21″. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum , first published in 1570. Titled “GALLIAE REGNI POTENTISS NOVA DESCRIPTIO, JOANNE IOLIVETO AUCTORE, ” (“A New Description of the Powerful Kingdom of France per the Accurate work of Jean Jolivet”). Hand colored copper plate engraving on rag (laid) paper. Densely filled with topographical features and numerous cities. Bar scale in French miles, with dividers. The borders are graduated for latitude and longitude. Coat of arms displayed in the Oceanus Occidentalis. The title runs across the top of the map and a there is a text panel within a strapwork cartouche, celebrating the wealth, military courage and education of the French. Manuscript verso in Latin. 527 1598 was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer. Conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Theatre of the World. Ortelius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography. And one of the most notable figures of the school in its golden age (approximately 1570s1670s). The publication of his atlas. In 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting. To their present positions. Not framed or matted. Hand applied pigments slightly faded in places. Slightly toned with negligible foxing. Cartouche and other colors vibrant. Minor roughage around the edges. Small 3 in the central crease in the lower margin (all visible in the images). A FINE AND VERY RARE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MAP. The item “Original Antique 16th C Map Galliae Regni Potentiss 1570 Ortelius France” is in sale since Wednesday, January 16, 2019. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “allenpeach” and is located in Tenants Harbor, Maine. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Topic: Antiques
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Type: Physical Map
  • Year: 1570
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
  • Country/Region: France
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France

RARE, EARLY AND ORIGINAL MAP BY ABRAHAM ORTELIUS. About 16 1/2″ x 21″. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1579. Titled PICARDIAE / Belgic regio / nis descriptio. “(Cartouche incorrectly reads “Joanne Surhonio, corrected in later editions). Shows the regions of Picardy, Santerre, Vermandois, etc. Dated lower left 1579. 527 1598 was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer. Conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Theatre of the World. Ortelius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography. And one of the most notable figures of the school in its golden age (approximately 1570s1670s). The publication of his atlas. In 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting. To their present positions. Not framed or matted. Hand applied pigments slightly faded in places. Slightly toned with negligible foxing. Cartouche and other colors vibrant. Minor roughage around the edges, nothing penetrating into the map (all visible in the images). A FINE AND VERY RARE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MAP. The item “Original Antique 16th C Map PICARDIAE BELGIC 1579 Abraham Ortelius France” is in sale since Friday, January 4, 2019. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “allenpeach” and is located in Tenants Harbor, Maine. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Topic: Antiques
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Type: Physical Map
  • Year: 1579
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
  • Country/Region: France
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar

Gallia Vetus, Ad Iulij Caesaris commentaria. Fine and early historical. Nice Ortelius’ map of Ancient France based on Caesar’s De Bello Gallico. It is engraved to show the mountains, rivers and forests with only a few ancient place names. The names of famous people and tribes of Gallia, as described by Caesar, are listed at sides. Embellished map with tiny ships sailing in the seas and three strapwork cartouches containing the title, scale and dedication, all surrounded in an elaborately engraved border. From the rare 1624 edition of Ortelius’s Parergon in quo Veteris Geographiae aliquot tabulae… Nomenclator Ptolemaicus with the text by Balthasar Moretus. Orteliuss Parergon began as a companion to his Theatrum but eventually it became an independent work. In fact, this collection of maps of the ancient world was so significant that it became the model for all historical atlases published throughout the seventeenth century. The maps and plates in the Parergon have to be evaluated as the most outstanding engravings. Depicting the wide-spread interest in classical geography in the 16th century (Koeman). Unlike the Theatrum, which consisted of existing maps reengraved by Ortelius, the maps in the Parergon were drawn by Ortelius himself. As a scholar of antiquity, a dealer in antiques, and a visitor to ancient sites, he was well prepared to execute the maps and all the maps from the Parergon reflect his passion for the ancient world. From: Theatri Orbis Terrarum Parergon; Sive Veteris Geographiae Tabulae, Commentarijs Geographicis et Historicis illustratae… Size: Printed area measures 36 x 46 cm on sheet 46 x 56 cm. Condition: Strong dark impression. Light traces of age on verso and some little spots. WE SELL ONLY ORIGINAL ANTIQUE MAPS – NOT REPRODUCTIONS. Tag: original antique map carte mappa originale antica history storia Francia Cesare Augusto. The item “Gallia Vetus ORTELIUS original map of Ancient FRANCE De Bello Gallico Cesar” is in sale since Thursday, September 13, 2018. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “ruggis” and is located in Brescia. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Type: Political Map
  • Year: 1624
  • Country/Region: France
  • Region: France
  • Topic: Ancient
Tags: , , , , , , , ,
France Provence. Provincia By Ortelius Circa 1601. Original Colour

France Provence. Provincia By Ortelius Circa 1601. Original Colour

A nice example of Abraham Ortelius’s miniature map of Provence, in the South of France. The present map was originally produced to accompany his Epitome… Published in Antwerp circa 1601. Attractive original hand colour. Measures 80 x 105 mm. Please see photo for condition. Fine original hand colour. A guaranteed genuine antique map. The item “FRANCE PROVENCE. PROVINCIA BY ORTELIUS CIRCA 1601. ORIGINAL COLOUR” is in sale since Friday, November 30, 2018. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “sharp340″ and is located in London. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Type: City Map
  • Year: 1574
Tags: , , , , , ,
Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France

RARE, EARLY AND ORIGINAL MAP BY ABRAHAM ORTELIUS. About 16 3/4″ x 21″. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570. Titled Artois / ATREBATUM REGIONIS / VERA DESCRIPTIO. / Johanne Surhonio Montensi / Auc Fore. “(Cartouche incorrectly reads “Johanne Surhonio, ” corrected to “Jacques in later editions). Shows the regions of Cambresis, Vimeux, Ponthieu, Boullenois, etc. Strapwork cartouches upper right and lower right with a scale on the lower one. 527 1598 was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer. Conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Theatre of the World. Ortelius is often considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography. And one of the most notable figures of the school in its golden age (approximately 1570s1670s). The publication of his atlas. In 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting. To their present positions. Not framed or matted. Hand applied pigments slightly faded in places. Slightly toned with negligible foxing. Cartouche and other colors vibrant. Minor roughage around the edges, nothing penetrating into the map (all visible in the images). A FINE AND VERY RARE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MAP. The item “Original Antique 16th C Map ARTOIS ATREBATUM REGIONIS 1570 Ortelius France” is in sale since Monday, December 3, 2018. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “allenpeach” and is located in Tenants Harbor, Maine. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Topic: Antiques
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Type: Physical Map
  • Year: 1579
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
  • Country/Region: Artois
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581

An original antique, copper-engraved pair of maps of part of central France published by Abraham Ortelius in his Atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum in Antwerp in c. The larger map is titled’Regionis Biturigum Exactiss: Descriptio per D. Ioannem Calamaeum’ and feature the Loire River, and the cities of Bourges and Nevers. It has a decorative title cartouche and distance scale and contains significant detail of place names and topographical features. The smaller map which is equally decorative and detailed is titled’Limaniae Topographia Gabriele Symeoneo Auct. And shows Clermont and Beauregard as well as many other settlements. These maps a great examples of Ortelius’ practice of bringing together the work of other cartographers and including it in his great atlas. The printed area measure approximately 480mm x 305mm with French descriptive text verso. Condition report: In excellent condition overall, light toning as is normal in a 435 year old map; several pin-sized holes to the sheet which are only obvious when held up to the light; centrefold as issued; strengthening at the base of the centrefold and at the bottom right corner of the sheet not affecting the printed area. The item “Original antique map FRANCE, LOIRE, BOURGES, NEVERS, CLERMONT, Ortelius, c. 1581″ is in sale since Thursday, November 1, 2018. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “mapsetcetera1″ and is located in Menston, West Yorkshire. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Map Type: Regional
  • Format: Sheet Map
  • Country//Region: France
  • Colouring: Uncoloured as published
  • Size: 48cm x 30.5cm
  • Original//Repro: Original
  • Age: 1550-1599
  • Place and date of publication: Antwerp 1581
  • Printing Technique: Copper Plate
  • Maker: Abraham Ortelius
  • Country/Region: France
  • Era: 1500s
  • Original/Repro: Original
  • Year: c.1581
  • Cartographer/Publisher: Abraham Ortelius
  • Original/Reproduction: Antique Original
  • Date Range: 1500-1599
Tags: , , , , , , ,
France Provence. Provincia By Ortelius Circa 1601. Original Colour

France Provence. Provincia By Ortelius Circa 1601. Original Colour

A nice example of Abraham Ortelius’s miniature map of Provence, in the South of France. The present map was originally produced to accompany his Epitome… Published in Antwerp circa 1601. Attractive original hand colour. Measures 80 x 105 mm. Please see photo for condition. Fine original hand colour. A guaranteed genuine antique map. The item “FRANCE PROVENCE. PROVINCIA BY ORTELIUS CIRCA 1601. ORIGINAL COLOUR” is in sale since Tuesday, October 16, 2018. This item is in the category “Antiques\Maps, Atlases & Globes\Europe Maps”. The seller is “sharp340″ and is located in London. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Type: City Map
  • Year: 1574
Tags: , , , , , ,